Technical Update No. 433: eHealth Solutions for Urinary Incontinence among Women

Published:October 20, 2022DOI:



      The purpose of this technical update is to establish the state of the science regarding emerging and novel electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) solutions for urinary incontinence among women.

      Target population

      Women over 18 years with urinary incontinence.


      Websites and mobile health applications are useful in the conservative care of urinary incontinence. Relevant care providers should be familiar with such tools, particularly those that use motivational principles for behaviour change, which can be used as adjunct tools for urinary incontinence care. Telemedicine is an effect mode to provide services for the conservative care of urinary incontinence.


      Use of eHealth and mHealth solutions has potentially significant health outcomes for patients, providers, and global health systems. Broader use of telemedicine, in and of itself, could improve care access and reduce costs incurred by patients and the health care system.

      Benefits, Harms, and Costs

      Evidence for the efficacy of eHealth and mHealth technologies and applications for urinary incontinence ranges from weak to strong. However, the research landscape for many of these novel solutions is developing rapidly. Furthermore, these options have minimal or no harm and confer an established cost benefit and care access benefit.


      The Cochrane Library, Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL databases (from January 2014 to April 2019) were searched to find articles related to conservative care of urinary incontinence in women (over 18 years) and studies on eHealth and mHealth interventions for urinary incontinence. Articles were appraised, and the collective evidence was graded.

      Validation methods

      The authors rated the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. See online Appendix A (Tables A1 for definitions and A2 for interpretations of strong and conditional [weak] recommendations).

      Intended audience

      Relevant primary care providers and medical specialists, including physicians, nurses, midwives, and pelvic health physiotherapists.



      eHealth (electronic health), ICIQ-LUTSqol (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life module), ICIQ-UI SF (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire – Urinary Incontinence Short Form), mHealth (mobile health), OAB (overactive bladder), PFDI (Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory), PFMT (pelvic floor muscle training), SUI (stress urinary incontinence), UI (urinary incontinence), UUI (urge urinary incontinence)
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