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Vaping During Pregnancy: What Are the Potential Health Outcomes and Perceptions Pregnant Women Have?

Published:November 10, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jogc.2020.05.014

      ABSTRACT

      The prevalence of electronic nicotine delivery systems, such as vaping, is a growing public health concern, and there is limited information on the use of these devices during pregnancy. The objective of this rapid review was to summarize the available literature on human studies of the potential maternal or fetal health effects of vaping or women's perceptions of vaping during pregnancy.
      A systematic search was completed in the following databases: Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and CINAHL. A search strategy was developed combining the terms pregnancy and vaping. Findings were divided into two groups and summarized as: 1) Health outcomes following vaping during pregnancy; and 2) Perceptions pregnant women have related to vaping during pregnancy. A total of 760 articles were retrieved and, after applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria and screening, 19 studies were included. Five included studies provided evidence on potential health outcomes and 14 were focused on perceptions.
      There is emerging evidence that vaping during pregnancy may increase the risk of small for gestational age newborns. Pregnant women generally report that they used vaping products during pregnancy for smoking cessation and perceived that this was a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes. Overall, there was consensus that there is a lack of information on maternal and fetal health outcomes following vaping during pregnancy. Based on the findings of this rapid review, there is an urgent need for high-quality studies in pregnant women to evaluate the potential in utero and long-term effects of exposure to prenatal vaping.

      RÉSUMÉ

      La prévalence de la cigarette électronique, notamment le vapotage, est une préoccupation grandissante de santé publique, et il y a peu de renseignements sur l'utilisation de ces dispositifs pendant la grossesse. L'objectif de cet examen rapide est de résumer la littérature disponible sur les études réalisées sur des sujets humains afin de connaître les effets potentiels du vapotage sur la santé maternelle ou fœtale ou la perception des femmes du vapotage pendant la grossesse.
      Une recherche systématique a été effectuée dans les bases de données suivantes : Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science et CINAHL. La stratégie de recherche s'appuyait sur les termes pregnancy et vaping. Les observations ont été divisées en deux groupes et résumées comme suit : 1) les résultats cliniques en cas de vapotage pendant la grossesse; 2) les perceptions des femmes enceintes du vapotage pendant la grossesse. En tout, 760 articles ont été sélectionnés; après l'application des critères d'inclusion et d'exclusion et le triage, 19 études ont été retenues. Parmi les études retenues, 5 fournissaient des données probantes sur des résultats cliniques possibles et 14 portaient sur les perceptions.
      De nouvelles données probantes suggèrent que le vapotage pendant la grossesse peut augmenter le risque de nouveau-nés petits pour l’âge gestationnel. Les femmes enceintes signalent généralement qu'elles ont utilisé des produits de vapotage pendant la grossesse pour cesser de fumer et qu'elles percevaient ce choix comme une option plus saine par rapport au tabagisme traditionnel. Dans l'ensemble, il existe un consensus voulant qu'il y ait un manque d'information sur les résultats cliniques pour la mère et le fœtus en cas de vapotage pendant la grossesse. D'après les observations issues de cet examen rapide, il apparaît urgent d'effectuer des études de haute qualité chez les femmes enceintes afin d’évaluer les effets potentiels in utero et à long terme de l'exposition au vapotage prénatal.

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