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Maternal Vitamin D Levels During Pregnancy and Their Effects on Maternal–Fetal Outcomes: A Systematic Review

Published:December 21, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jogc.2019.09.013

      Abstract

      To synthesize and critically review the current evidence available on maternal vitamin D deficiency and its effects on maternal–fetal outcomes, this study reviewed the maternal–fetal outcomes, including prolonged labour or cesarean delivery, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, low birth weight and small for gestational age, and preterm birth. An extensive systematic searched was performed in Medline and EMBASE, where a medical subject heading (MeSH) was used with terms “Vitamin D/25(OH)D” and “pregnancy/fetal outcomes”; these terms were combined with “and.” In Web of Science and Google Scholar, a key word search was used. Nineteen articles were included for full review. This review found that the current state of the evidence is equivocal for maternal–fetal outcomes such as the risk of prolonged labour and cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, low birth weight and small for gestational age, and preterm birth. Although some previous studies have found improvement in pregnancy outcomes with sufficient vitamin D levels, others have not shown any association with the aforementioned outcomes. This systematic review also highlights an association between the risk of preeclampsia and maternal vitamin D levels that is found to be consistent among studies.

      Résumé

      Dans le but de synthétiser les données probantes actuellement disponibles sur la carence maternelle en vitamine D et ses effets sur les issues fœto-maternelles et d'effectuer une analyse critique de ces données, cette étude a examiné ces issues, notamment le travail prolongé et la césarienne, la pré-éclampsie, le diabète gestationnel, le fœtus petit pour l'âge gestationnel et le faible poids à la naissance ainsi que la naissance avant terme. Une recherche systématique approfondie a été réalisée dans les bases de données Medline et EMBASE, pour laquelle une liste Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) a été utilisée avec les termes Vitamin D/25(OH)D et pregnancy/fetal outcomes et l'opérateur booléen AND. Une recherche par mot-clé a été effectuée dans les bases de données Web of Science et Google Scholar. L'examen approfondi a porté sur 19 articles. Cette étude a révélé que l'état actuel des données probantes est équivoque en ce qui a trait aux issues fœto-maternelles telles que les risques de travail prolongé et de césarienne, de diabète gestationnel, de fœtus petit pour l'âge gestationnel et de faible poids à la naissance, et de naissance avant terme. Bien que certaines études antérieures aient constaté une amélioration des issues de grossesse en présence d'un taux suffisant de vitamine D, d'autres n'ont révélé aucune corrélation avec les issues susmentionnées. Cette revue systématique met aussi en lumière une corrélation entre le risque de pré-éclampsie et le taux maternel de vitamine D, laquelle se révèle cohérente avec les autres études.

      Keywords

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