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JOGC

No. 313-Menstrual Suppression in Special Circumstances

      Abstract

      Objective

      To provide a Canadian consensus document for health care providers with recommendations for menstrual suppression in patients with physical and/or cognitive challenges or those who are undergoing cancer treatment in whom menstruation may have a deleterious effect on their health.

      Options

      This document reviews the options available for menstrual suppression, its specific indications, contraindications, and side effects, both immediate and long-term, and the investigations and monitoring necessary throughout suppression.

      Outcomes

      Clinicians will be better informed about the options and indications for menstrual suppression in patients with cognitive and/or physical disabilities and patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiation, or other treatments for cancer.

      Evidence

      Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline, EMBASE, OVID, and the Cochrane Library using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (heavy menstrual bleeding, menstrual suppression, chemotherapy/radiation, cognitive disability, physical disability, learning disability). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observation studies, and pilot studies. There were no language or date restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and new material was incorporated into the guideline until September 2013. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies.

      Values

      The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1).

      Benefits, harms, and costs

      There is a need for specific guidelines on menstrual suppression in at-risk populations for health care providers.

      Recommendations

      • 1
        Menstrual suppression and therapeutic amenorrhea should be considered safe and viable options for women who need or want to have fewer or no menses (II-2A).
      • 2
        Menstrual suppression should not be initiated in young women with developmental disabilities until after the onset of menses (II-2B).
      • 3
        Combined hormonal or progesterone-only products can be used in an extended or continuous manner to obtain menstrual suppression (I-A).
      • 4
        Gynaecologic consultation should be considered prior to the initiation of treatment in all premenopausal women at risk for abnormal uterine bleeding from chemotherapy (II-1A).
      • 5
        Leuprolide acetate or combined hormonal contraception should be considered highly effective in preventing abnormal uterine bleeding when initiated prior to cancer treatment in premenopausal women at risk for thrombocytopenia (II-2A).

      Key Words

      Abbreviations:

      AUB (abnormal uterine bleeding), BMD (bone mineral density), CHC (combined hormonal contraception), DEXA (dual X-ray absorptiometry), DMPA (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate), GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone), IM (intramuscular), IUD (intrauterine device), IV (intravenous), LA (leuprolide acetate), LNG-IUS (levonorgestrel intrauterine system), OCP (oral contraceptive pill), POP (progestin-only pill)
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