JOGC

Canadian Contraception Consensus Chapter 5 Barrier Methods

        The French version of this article is available as supplementary matter.
        To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

        REFERENCES

          • Black A.
          • Yang Q.
          • Wen S.W.
          • Lalonde A.
          • Guilbert E.
          • Fisher W.
          Contraceptive use by Canadian women of reproductive age: results of a national survey.
          J Soc Obstet Gynecol Can. 2009; 31: 627-640
          • Weller S.
          • Davis K.
          Condom effectiveness in reducing heterosexual HIV transmission.
          Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007; 4CD003255
          • Crosby R.
          • Bounse S.
          Condom effectiveness: where are we now?.
          Sex Health. 2012; 9: 10-17
          • Crosby R.A.
          • Charnigo R.A.
          • Weathers C.
          • Caliendo A.M.
          • Shrier L.A.
          Condom effectiveness against non-viral sexually transmitted infections: a prospective study using electronic daily diaries.
          Sex Transm Infect. 2012; 88: 484-489
          • Food and Drug Administration HHS
          Obstetrical and gynecological devices; designation of special controls for male condoms made of natural rubber latex.
          Fed Regist. 2008; 73: 66522-66539
          • Government of Canada
          Safer condom use.
          Government of Canada, Ottawa (ON)2014 (Available at:) (Accessed on January 12, 2015)
          • Voeller B.
          • Coulson A.H.
          • Bernstein G.S.
          • Nakamura R.M.
          Mineral oil lubricants cause rapid deterioration of latex condoms.
          Contraception. 1989; 39: 95-102
          • Rosen A.D.
          • Rosen T.
          Study of condom integrity after brief exposure to over-the-counter vaginal preparations.
          South Med J. 1999; 92: 305-307
          • Gallo M.F.
          • Grimes D.A.
          • Lopez L.M.
          • Schulz K.F.
          Non-latex versus latex male condoms for contraception.
          Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006; 1CD003550
          • Cates Jr., W.
          • Stone K.M.
          Family planning, sexually transmitted diseases and contraceptive choice: a literature update—Part I.
          Fam Plann Perspect. 1992; 24: 75-84
          • d’Oro L.C.
          • Parazzini F.
          • Naldi L.
          • La Vecchia C.
          Barrier methods of contraception, spermicides, and sexually transmitted diseases: a review.
          Genitourin Med. 1994; 70: 410-417
          • Trussell J.
          Contraceptive failure in the United States.
          Contraception. 2011; 83: 397-404
          • Steiner M.J.
          • Dominik R.
          • Rountree R.W.
          • Nanda K.
          • Dorflinger L.J.
          Contraceptive effectiveness of a polyurethane condom and a latex condom: a randomized controlled trial.
          Obstet Gynecol. 2003; 101: 539-547
          • Walsh T.L.
          • Frezieres R.G.
          • Peacock K.
          • Nelson A.L.
          • Clark V.A.
          • Bernstein L.
          Evaluation of the efficacy of a nonlatex condom: results from a randomized, controlled clinical trial.
          Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2003; 35: 79-86
          • Federal Drug Administration
          Durex synthetic polyisoprene male condom: pre-market notification 510(k) submission.
          FDA, Silver Spring (MD)2008 (Available at) (Accessed on January 25, 2015)
          • Obiero J.
          • Mwethera P.G.
          • Hussey G.D.
          • Wiysonge C.S.
          Vaginal microbicides for reducing the risk of sexual acquisition of HIV infection in women: systematic review and meta-analysis.
          BMC Infect Dis. 2012; 12: 289
          • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
          U.S. medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use.
          MMWR Recommend Rep. 2010; 59: 1-85
          • The World Health Organization
          Improving access to quality care in family planning: medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use.
          4th ed. WHO, Geneva (CH)2010
          • Gallo M.F.
          • Steiner M.J.
          • Warner L.
          • Hylton-Kong T.
          • Figueroa J.P.
          • Hobbs M.M.
          • et al.
          Self-reported condom use is associated with reduced risk of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis.
          Sex Transm Dis. 2007; 34: 829-833
          • Warner L.
          • Newman D.R.
          • Kamb M.L.
          • Fishbein M.
          • Douglas Jr., J.M.
          • Zenilman J.
          • et al.
          Problems with condom use among patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics: prevalence, predictors, and relation to incident gonorrhea and chlamydia.
          Am J Epidemiol. 2008; 167: 341-349
          • Lam J.U.
          • Rebolj M.
          • Dugue P.A.
          • Bonde J.
          • von Euler-Chelpin M.
          • Lynge E.
          Condom use in prevention of human papillomavirus infections and cervical neoplasia: systematic review of longitudinal studies.
          J Med Screen. 2014; 21: 38-50
          • Manhart L.E.
          • Koutsky L.A.
          Do condoms prevent genital HPV infection, external genital warts, or cervical neoplasia? A meta-analysis.
          Sex Transm Dis. 2002; 29: 725-735
          • Fihn S.D.
          • Boyko E.J.
          • Normand E.H.
          • Chen C.L.
          • Grafton J.R.
          • Hunt M.
          • et al.
          Association between use of spermicide-coated condoms and Escherichia coli urinary tract infection in young women.
          Am J Epidemiol. 1996; 144: 512-520
          • Handley M.A.
          • Reingold A.L.
          • Shiboski S.
          • Padian N.S.
          Incidence of acute urinary tract infection in young women and use of male condoms with and without nonoxynol-9 spermicides.
          Epidemiology. 2002; 13: 431-436
          • Hooton T.M.
          • Hillier S.
          • Johnson C.
          • Roberts P.L.
          • Stamm W.E.
          Escherichia coli bacteriuria and contraceptive method.
          JAMA. 1991; 265: 64-69
          • Van Damme L.
          • Ramjee G.
          • Alary M.
          • Vuylsteke B.
          • Chandeying V.
          • Rees H.
          • et al.
          Effectiveness of COL-1492, a nonoxynol-9 vaginal gel, on HIV-1 transmission in female sex workers: a randomised controlled trial.
          Lancet. 2002; 360: 971-977
          • Fennell J.
          “And isn’t that the point?”: pleasure and contraceptive decisions.
          Contraception. 2014; 89: 264-270
          • Crosby R.A.
          • Graham C.A.
          • Yarber W.L.
          • Sanders S.A.
          Problems with condoms may be reduced for men taking ample time to apply them.
          Sex Health. 2010; 7: 66-70
          • Crosby R.A.
          • Yarber W.L.
          • Graham C.A.
          • Sanders S.A.
          Does it fit okay? Problems with condom use as a function of self-reported poor fit.
          Sex Transm Infect. 2010; 86: 36-38
          • Crosby R.
          • Shrier L.A.
          • Charnigo R.
          • Sanders S.A.
          • Graham C.A.
          • Milhausen R.
          • et al.
          Negative perceptions about condom use in a clinic population: comparisons by gender, race and age.
          Int J STD AIDS. 2013; 24: 100-105
          • Sanders S.A.
          • Yarber W.L.
          • Kaufman E.L.
          • Crosby R.A.
          • Graham C.A.
          • Milhausen R.R.
          Condom use errors and problems: a global view.
          Sex Health. 2012; 9: 81-95
          • Wald A.
          • Langenberg A.G.
          • Link K.
          • Izu A.E.
          • Ashley R.
          • Warren T.
          • et al.
          Effect of condoms on reducing the transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2 from men to women.
          JAMA. 2001; 285: 3100-3106
          • Denno D.M.
          • Chandra-Mouli V.
          • Osman M.
          Reaching youth with out-of-facility HIV and reproductive health services: a systematic review.
          J Adolesc Health. 2012; 51: 106-121
          • Kennedy C.E.
          • Spaulding A.B.
          • Brickley D.B.
          • Almers L.
          • Mirjahangir J.
          • Packel L.
          • et al.
          Linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV interventions: a systematic review.
          J Int AIDS Soc. 2010; 13: 26
          • Tomnay J.E.
          • Hatch B.
          Council-supported condom vending machines: are they acceptable to rural communities?.
          Sex Health. 2013; 10: 465-466
          • Brown N.L.
          • Pennylegion M.T.
          • Hillard P.
          A process evaluation of condom availability in the Seattle, Washington public schools.
          J Sch Health. 1997; 67: 336-340
          • Baraitser P.
          • Brown K.C.
          • Gleisner Z.
          • Pearce V.
          • Kumar U.
          • Brady M.
          ‘Do it yourself ’ sexual health care: the user experience.
          Sex Health. 2011; 8: 23-29
          • Health Canada
          Non-insured health benefits: First Nations and health benefits. Drug benefit list.
          Health Canada, Ottawa (ON)2014 (Available at:) (Accessed on April 29, 2015)
          • Food and Drug Administration
          Condoms and sexually transmitted infections.
          FDA, Silver Spring (MD)2015 (Available at) (Accessed on February 4, 2015)
          • Health Canada
          Canadian guidelines on sexually transmitted infections.
          Health Canada, Ottawa (ON)2014 (Available at:) (Accessed on January 8, 2015)
          • Batar I.
          • Sivin I.
          State-of-the-art of non-hormonal methods of contraception: I. Mechanical barrier contraception.
          Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2010; 15: 67-88
          • Beksinska M.
          • Smit J.
          • Mabude Z.
          • Vijayakumar G.
          • Joanis C.
          Performance of the Reality polyurethane female condom and a synthetic latex prototype: a randomized crossover trial among South African women.
          Contraception. 2006; 73: 386-393
          • Beksinska M.
          • Smit J.
          • Joanis C.
          • Usher-Patel M.
          • Potter W.
          Female condom technology: new products and regulatory issues.
          Contraception. 2011; 83: 316-321
          • Gallo M.F.
          • Kilbourne-Brook M.
          • Coffey P.S.
          A review of the effectiveness and acceptability of the female condom for dual protection.
          Sex Health. 2012; 9: 18-26
          • Drew W.L.
          • Blair M.
          • Miner R.C.
          • Conant M.
          Evaluation of the virus permeability of a new condom for women.
          Sex Transm Dis. 1990; 17: 110-112
          • Macaluso M.
          • Blackwell R.
          • Jamieson D.J.
          • Kulczycki A.
          • Chen M.P.
          • Akers R.
          • et al.
          Efficacy of the male latex condom and of the female polyurethane condom as barriers to semen during intercourse: a randomized clinical trial.
          Am J Epidemiol. 2007; 166: 88-96
          • Galvao L.W.
          • Oliveira L.C.
          • Diaz J.
          • Kim D.J.
          • Marchi N.
          • van Dam J.
          • et al.
          Effectiveness of female and male condoms in preventing exposure to semen during vaginal intercourse: a randomized trial.
          Contraception. 2005; 71: 130-136
          • Trussell J.
          • Guthrie K.A.
          Choosing a contraceptive: safety, efficacy, and personal considerations.
          in: Hatcher R.A. Trussell J. Nelson A.L. Cates W. Kowal D. Policar M. Contraceptive technology. 20th ed. rev. Ardent Media, New York (NY)2011
          • Smit J.
          • Beksinska M.
          • Vijayakumar G.
          • Mabude Z.
          Short-term acceptability of the Reality polyurethane female condom and a synthetic latex prototype: a randomized crossover trial among South African women.
          Contraception. 2006; 73: 394-398
          • Health Canada
          Caya contoured diaphragm. Licence No. 92539.
          Health Canada, Ottawa (ON)2013 (Available at) (Accessed on February 5, 2015)
          • Health Canada
          FemCap (contraceptive cervical cap). Licence no. 79318.
          Health Canada, Ottawa (ON)2009 (Available at:) (Accessed on February 5, 2015)
          • Schwartz J.L.
          • Weiner D.H.
          • Lai J.J.
          • Frezieres R.G.
          • Creinin M.D.
          • Archer D.F.
          • et al.
          Contraceptive efficacy, safety, fit, and acceptability of a single-size diaphragm developed with end-user input.
          Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 125: 895-903
          • Mauck C.
          • Callahan M.
          • Weiner D.H.
          • Dominik R.
          A comparative study of the safety and efficacy of FemCap, a new vaginal barrier contraceptive, and the Ortho All-Flex diaphragm.
          The FemCap Investigators’ Group. Contraception. 1999; 60: 71-80
          • Kost K.
          • Forrest J.D.
          • Harlap S.
          Comparing the health risks and benefits of contraceptive choices.
          Fam Plann Perspect. 1991; 23: 54-61
          • Minnis A.M.
          • Padian N.S.
          Effectiveness of female controlled barrier methods in preventing sexually transmitted infections and HIV: current evidence and future research directions.
          Sex Transm Infect. 2005; 81: 193-200
          • Ramjee G.
          • van der Straten A.
          • Chipato T.
          • de Bruyn G.
          • Blanchard K.
          • Shiboski S.
          • et al.
          The diaphragm and lubricant gel for prevention of cervical sexually transmitted infections: results of a randomized controlled trial.
          PLoS One. 2008; 3e3488
          • de Bruyn G.
          • Shiboski S.
          • van der Straten A.
          • Blanchard K.
          • Chipato T.
          • Ramjee G.
          • et al.
          The effect of the vaginal diaphragm and lubricant gel on acquisition of HSV-2.
          Sex Transm Infect. 2011; 87: 301-305
          • Padian N.S.
          • van der Straten A.
          • Ramjee G.
          • Chipato T.
          • de Bruyn G.
          • Blanchard K.
          • et al.
          Diaphragm and lubricant gel for prevention of HIV acquisition in southern African women: a randomised controlled trial.
          Lancet. 2007; 370: 251-261
          • Hooton T.M.
          • Fihn S.D.
          • Johnson C.
          • Roberts P.L.
          • Stamm W.E.
          Association between bacterial vaginosis and acute cystitis in women using diaphragms.
          Arch Intern Med. 1989; 149: 1932-1936
          • Fihn S.D.
          • Latham R.H.
          • Roberts P.
          • Running K.
          • Stamm W.E.
          Association between diaphragm use and urinary tract infection.
          JAMA. 1985; 254: 240-245
          • Vessey M.P.
          • Metcalfe M.A.
          • McPherson K.
          • Yeates D.
          Urinary tract infection in relation to diaphragm use and obesity.
          Int J Epidemiol. 1987; 16: 441-444
          • Schwartz B.
          • Gaventa S.
          • Broome C.V.
          • Reingold A.L.
          • Hightower A.W.
          • Perlman J.A.
          • et al.
          Nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome associated with barrier contraceptives: report of a case-control study.
          Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11 (discussion S48–S49): S43-S48
          • Cook L.
          • Nanda K.
          • Grimes D.
          Diaphragm versus diaphragm with spermicides for contraception.
          Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003; 1CD002031
          • Allen R.E.
          Diaphragm fitting.
          Am Fam Physician. 2004; 69: 97-100
          • K4Health
          Family planning: a global handbook for providers. Chapter 15: spermicides and diaphragms.
          K4Health Orders Team, Baltimore (MD)2015 (Available at) (Accessed on February 5, 2015)
          • Gallo M.F.
          • Grimes D.A.
          • Schulz K.F.
          Cervical cap versus diaphragm for contraception.
          Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002; 4CD003551
          • Albert X.
          • Huertas I.
          • Pereiro II, Sanfelix J.
          • Gosalbes V.
          • Perrota C.
          Antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in non-pregnant women.
          Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004; 3CD001209
          • Hatcher R.A.
          • Trussell J.
          • Nelson A.
          • Cates W.
          • Kowal D.
          • Policar M.
          Contraceptive technology.
          20th ed. Ardent Media, New York (NY)2011
          • Kuyoh M.A.
          • Toroitich-Ruto C.
          • Grimes D.A.
          • Schulz K.F.
          • Gallo M.F.
          Sponge versus diaphragm for contraception: a Cochrane review.
          Contraception. 2003; 67: 15-18
          • Raymond E.G.
          • Trussell J.
          • Weaver M.A.
          • Reeves M.F.
          Estimating contraceptive efficacy: the case of spermicides.
          Contraception. 2013; 87: 134-137
          • Grimes D.A.
          • Lopez L.M.
          • Raymond E.G.
          • Halpern V.
          • Nanda K.
          • Schulz K.F.
          Spermicide used alone for contraception.
          Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 12CD005218
          • Wilkinson D.
          • Tholandi M.
          • Ramjee G.
          • Rutherford G.W.
          Nonoxynol-9 spermicide for prevention of vaginally acquired HIV and other sexually transmitted infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials including more than 5000 women.
          Lancet Infect Dis. 2002; 2: 613-617
          • Hooton T.M.
          • Scholes D.
          • Hughes J.P.
          • Winter C.
          • Roberts P.L.
          • Stapleton A.E.
          • et al.
          A prospective study of risk factors for symptomatic urinary tract infection in young women.
          N Engl J Med. 1996; 335: 468-474
          • Scholes D.
          • Hooton T.M.
          • Roberts P.L.
          • Stapleton A.E.
          • Gupta K.
          • Stamm W.E.
          Risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infection in young women.
          J Infect Dis. 2000; 182: 1177-1182
          • Daly C.C.
          • Helling-Giese G.E.
          • Mati J.K.
          • Hunter D.J.
          Contraceptive methods and the transmission of HIV: implications for family planning.
          Genitourin Med. 1994; 70: 110-117
          • World Health Organization
          • Department of Reproductive Health and Research
          WHO/CONRAD Technical Consultation on Nonoxynol-9: Geneva, 9-10 October, 2001.
          WHO, Geneva (CH)2003